Currently word can be used for antibiotic any natural or artificial substance capable of inhibiting the growth of microorganisms.
The application of wine, myrrh and minerals applied by the Greeks on the wounds of war.
La Quina (Cinchona) obtained from the bark of the cinchona, was the first effective antimicrobial parasite that was used for the treatment of febrile syndromes, and that cured malaria crises of the wife of the Count of Chinchon Viceroy of Peru in 1.638 .
Ehrlich discovered salvarsan in 1913 (dioxidiamino arsenobenzol) for the treatment of syphilis.
In 1897 Ernest Duchesne, experimenting with a fungus Penicillium glaucum. Duchesne had not even earned a doctorate degree when published.
Benefits of antibiotics
The infectious diseases were the leading cause of death even before the 50’s such as tuberculosis, pneumonia are much less severe today.
Also used in the treatment and prevention of protozoal or fungal infections, particularly malaria (one of the main causes of death in developing countries).
They have also made a breakthrough in the field of surgery, allowing the realization of complex and protracted operations without excessive risk of infection.
Classification of antibiotics
Antibiotics can be divided into bactericidal and bacteriostatic
Bacteriostatic: inhibited bacterial growth eventually die or be attacked by the host defense mechanisms (tetracyclines and sulfonamides)
Bactericides: Antibiotics that damage the cell membrane produce a release of cellular metabolites abroad, and therefore his death. (Penicillins, cephalosporins)
Antibiotics according to their origin
Fungal: penicillins, cephalosporins.
Bacterial: polymyxins, Tyrothricin, colistin.
Actinomyces: streptomycin, kanamycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, tetracycline, erythromycin.
Synthetic or Semi-synthetic: carbenicillin, methicillin, ticarcillin, imipenem, doxycycline. Minocycline, Clarithromycin, Azithromycin
Classification according to its spectrum
The spectrum is the population of an antibiotic-sensitive bacteria
Broad spectrum: Gram (+) and gram (-) anaerobic. Eg tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, meropenem
Narrow spectrum: Vancomycin for Gram (+) amikacin on Gram (-)
Spectrum Chemical ampliadomodificación to increase its spectrum. Ex: Amoxicillin
Mechanisms of bacterial resistance
Enzymes that destroy the active drug. Eg: lactamase
Change their permeability drug (porins). Eg pseudomonas beta-lactam
Structurally alter the target. Eg PBP mutation of pneumococcus
Develop a different metabolic pathway that bypasses the reaction inhibited by the drug. Eg increased production of PABA for sulfa
Increase in the expulsion of the drug. Eg E. coli to tetracyclines
Types of antibiotics
Empirical: the seed is not known, it is assumed. In cases of serious infections. It should cover the 90% chance of germs causing the infection.
Target: There is a bacterial isolation. With or without antibiogram
Action according to their concentration and administration.
Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the bacteria is the concentration of the antimicrobial at which inhibit bacterial growth achieved
Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) is the concentration which is obtained by lysis of the bacteria
Concentration dependent: Whether concentrations subsequently fall below the MIC, because one fails to produce significant bacterial regrowth, a phenomenon known as post-antibiotic effect
Time dependent: The use of fractional doses adjusted to the average life of each antibacterial
Route of Administration
Intravenous: The best option for the management of severe infections which need high serum levels of antimicrobial
It has the disadvantage that you need to use the patient’s admission to hospital, the existence of a venous access, the presence of a nurse for administration, high cost of parenteral presentations.
Intra muscular: antibiotic use as single daily dose of ceftriaxone, ertapenem and aminoglycosides in the outpatient management of systemic infections.
remains the need for administration and staff of the high costs of parenteral presentation.
Oral: The best route of administration of antimicrobials in the outpatient clinic, certain antibiotics such as quinolones and azithromycin may be administered every 24 hours, and also have a high percentage of bioavailability.
Disadvantages of this type of administration of the gastrointestinal side effects, the number of daily doses and in many antibiotics low percentage of their bioavailability.
Dosage depends on the age and weight of the patient. severity and type of infectious process to treat.
However, even with so many benefits of antibiotic you should concern that use antibiotic with not proper would give antibiotic side effect to your body.